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ISSN: Print -2349-0977, Online - 2349-4387
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION - CLINICS IN HEMATOLOGY
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 66-73

Role of galactomannan assay in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in high risk patients with hematological disorders


1 Department of Hematology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Sleep Medicine, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Microbiology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
4 Department of Radiodiagnosis, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dipendra Kumar Gupta
Department of Hematology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi - 110 029
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2349-0977.197208

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Introduction: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the most frequent invasive fungal infection occurring in high risk patients with haematological disorders and also an important cause of morbidity and mortality in them. Lungs comprise the primary site of IA in the vast majority of cases, and the most frequently occurring form of IA. Early diagnosis followed by early initiation of therapy improves outcome. The current culture based diagnostic methods are insensitive and slow. Detection of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) in serum using the platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay (GM EIA) represents sensitive, non-culture-based tool for the early diagnosis of IA. Recent studies have shown that during IPA, GM is released earlier and in higher concentration in the BAL fluid than in serum. Thus, an early and accurate diagnosis of IPA can be reached by detecting antigen in BAL samples. Materials and Methods: Thirty consecutive high risk patients with haematological disorders satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria according to EORTC-MSG diagnostic criteria and undergoing indoor treatment were recruited between November 2013 and December 2014 into the study. In all the patients, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid GM and serum GM assays were assayed. Results: The diagnostic accuracy of the two tests was measured by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The optimal BAL GM index for diagnosing probable and possible IPA was >1.00 OD, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 93.75% and 78.57% respectively. As per ROC curve, when the optimal BAL GM index for the diagnosis of probable and possible invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) was OD >0.5, it resulted in sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 71.43% respectively. BAL GM was thus found to have a significantly higher sensitivity as compared to serum GM. Conclusion: In all high-risk patients with haematological disorders where the clinical and radiological findings favour the possibility of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, conducting a GM assay in BAL fluid sample is far more rewarding than carrying out the traditional serum GM assay. BAL GM has a high diagnostic accuracy when correlated with the EORTC/MSG diagnostic criteria, and this high diagnostic yield is useful in obviating the unnecessary widespread use and abuse of empirical antifungal therapy in patients with IPA.


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