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ISSN: Print -2349-0977, Online - 2349-4387
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 74-77

Mucocutaneous manifestations in patients on chemotherapy with pediatric hematological malignancies

1 Department of Dermatology and S.T.D., Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Taru Garg
Department of Dermatology and S.T.D., Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi - 110 001
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2349-0977.197209

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Introduction: A wide variety of chemotherapeutic agents are currently in use for the treatment of hematological malignancies in children. A spectrum of mucocutaneous adverse effects has been attributed to these agents, however, the data largely consists of case reports and case series. Material and Methods: Proforma of all pediatric patients up to 18 years of age, with confirmed hematological malignancies (lymphoma and leukemia), undergoing chemotherapy, and attending the pediatric hemato-oncology clinic of a tertiary care hospital over a period of 2 years were analyzed. A detailed history, mucocutaneous examination and investigations were recorded as per  the proforma. The results are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The prevalence of various side effects of chemotherapy is presented as percentages. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 1.2 to 14 years (mean age: 6.6 ± 3.2 years). The duration of the disease ranged from 2 to 122 weeks. Mean duration of chemotherapy was 23.9 ± 24.7 weeks. The analysis consisted of 38 (76%) males and 12 (24%) females (M: F: 3.2:1). Seventy-four percent of the patients had B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 6 patients had T-cell ALL, 3 patients had Philadelphia chromosome (+) T-cell ALL, 3 patients had non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) and one patient had hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Methotrexate (72%) was the most common agent used followed by vincristine (68%), 6-mercaptopurine (58%), daunomycin (48%), and asparaginase (30%). Hyper-pigmentation was the most common cutaneous side effect noticed in 6 patients. Three patients developed abscess. Two patients each developed tinea corporis, petechie, and thrombophlebitis. One patient each had scabies, pityriasis versicolor, miliaria rubra, allergic contact dermatitis, lip lick cheilitis, ear discharge, and conjunctivitis. One patient developed acute methotrexate toxicity. A total of 24 patients developed mucosal lesions, with aphthous ulcer (20%) being the most common, followed by oral candidiasis (12%) and herpes labialis (12%). Seventeen (34%) patients had diffuse anagen effluvium. Most common change affecting the nails among the study patients was Beau's lines for both fingernails (26%) and toenails (36%). Other less common changes included melanonychia, leuconychia, Mees lines, Muehrcke's nails, half and half nails, etc. Conclusion: The mucocutaneous manifestations associated with chemotherapy cause significant morbidity and possibly mortality in children. A proper knowledge of these manifestations can help in early identification and withdrawal of the offending agents and preventing the morbidity with appropriate and timely management.

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