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ISSN: Print -2349-0977, Online - 2349-4387
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 188-195

Characterizing renal abnormalities in children with high anorectal malformation with renal scintigraphy: A single-centre experience

1 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Paediatric Surgery, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Ravinder S Sethi
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi - 110029
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/astrocyte.astrocyte_36_17

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the renal abnormalities with renal scintigraphy in patients with high anorectal malformation (HARM). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 53 patients who had undergone corrective surgery for HARM from July 2011 to January 2017 and who were referred to this department for Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc99m-DMSA) scan for evaluation of renal cortical scarring. Scintigraphic evaluation of all 53 patients included both dynamic renography [Tc-99m diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) and Tc-99m-L, L-ethylenedicysteine (L-EC) scan] and cortical scintigraphy. A total of 68 scans were done in these 53 patients in which there were 38 Tc-99m DMSA scans, 15 Tc-99m DTPA and 15 Tc-99m EC scans. Tc-99m DTPA scans were done in 15 patients (26 kidneys) to look for glomerular filtration rate and drainage pattern. Results: Mean age of presentation of these 53 patients (86 kidneys or renal units) with HARM was 28.9 months. Out of 53 patients, male comprised 62.26% of cases (n = 33) and female comprised 37.7% of cases (n = 20). Spectrum of urologic abnormalities noted in our patients with HARM included unilaterally non-visualized kidney in 37.7% cases, i.e., 20/53 patients; hydroureteronephrosis in 28.3% of cases, i.e., 15/53 patients; hydronephrosis in 16.98% cases, i.e., 9/53 patients. Scarring was noted in 28.3% cases, i.e., 15/53 patients. Small kidney was noted in 10 patients out of 53, i.e., 18.8% of cases. Ectopic kidney was seen in 5.6% cases, i.e., 3/53 patients, horseshoe kidney in 3.7% (2/53) and duplex kidney was found in 1 patient, i.e., 1.8% of cases. Conclusion: Children with HARM have a high incidence of renal anomalies and these are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. It is important to document these renal anomalies early in life and initiate management as early as possible. Apart from routine investigations, such as ultrasound, renal scintigraphy performed with Tc-99m DTPA, Tc-99m EC and Tc-99m DMSA-III are non-invasive investigations that may provide important help in diagnosis, follow-up and management of renal anomalies in these patients.

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